Suggested Reading


 K. Chandy and L. Lamport, "Distributed snapshots: determining global states of distributed systems, " ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, Feb. 1985, 63-75.

L. Lamport, "Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system," Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 21, No. 7, 1978, 558-565.

E. Dijsktra, "Self-stabilizing systems in spite of distributed control," Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 17, No. 11, 1974, 643-644.

J. Wu, "Safety levels – an efficient mechanism for achieving a reliable broadcasting in hypercubes," IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 44, No. 5, May 1995, 702-706.

L. Lamport, R. Shostak, and M. Pease, "The Byzantine generals problem," ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1982, 382-401.

C. Liu and J. Layland, "Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard real-time environment," Journal of the ACM, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1972, 46-62.

Book Chapers

L. Lamport and N. Lynch, "Distributed Computing: Models and Methods," Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science, J. vn Leeuwen, ed., Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., 1990.

J. JaJa, "An Introduction to Parallel Algorithms," Chapters 1 and 2, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1990.

D. Easley and J. Kleinberg, "Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World," Chapter 14, Cambridge University Press, 2010.


Web crawler


HITS algorithm

Data deduplication


Cloud computing


Virtual currency