Suggested Reading

(Theory and Foundation)

  L. Lamport, "Deconstructing the Bakery to build distributed state machine, " Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 65, No. 9, 2022, 58-66.

 K. Chandy and L. Lamport, "Distributed snapshots: determining global states of distributed systems, " ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, Feb. 1985, 63-75.

  L. Lamport, "Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system," Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 21, No. 7, 1978, 558-565.

 E. Dijsktra, "Self-stabilizing systems in spite of distributed control," Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 17, No. 11, 1974, 643-644.

 J. Wu, "Safety levels-an efficient mechanism for achieving a reliable broadcasting in hypercubes," IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 44, No. 5, May 1995, 702-706.

 L. Lamport, R. Shostak, and M. Pease, "The Byzantine generals problem," ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1982, 382-401.

 C. Liu and J. Layland, "Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard real-time environment," Journal of the ACM, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1972, 46-62.

 S. Rajsbaum and M. Raynal, "Matering Concurrent Computing through Sequential Thinking," Comm. of the ACM, Vol. 63, No. 1, Jan. 2020, 78-87.


  Armbrust, "A View of Cloud Computing," CACM, April 2010, pgs 50-58.

  Feamster, "The Road to SDN," ACMQueue, December 2013.

  Lashman and Malik, "Cassandra - A Decentralized Structured Storage System," LADIS, 2009.

  Shvachko, "The Hadoop File System," MSST, 2010, Pages 1-10.

  Vaquero, "Dynamically Scaling Applications in the Cloud," SIGCOMM, January 2011, Pages 45-52.

  Nurmi, "The Eucalyptus Open-Source Cloud-computing System," CCGRID, 2009.

  Barham, "Xen and the Art of Virtualization," SOSP, 2003, Pages 164-177.

  Raiciu, "Improving Datacenter Performance and Robustness with Multipath TCP," SIGCOMM, August 2011, Pages 266-277.

  Chen, "Time-division TCP for reconfigurable data center networks," SIGCOOM, 2022.

  Li, "1Pipe: Scalable Total Order Communication in Data Center Networks," SIGCOOM, 2021.

Book Chapers

 L. Lamport and N. Lynch, "Distributed Computing: Models and Methods," Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science, J. vn Leeuwen, ed., Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., 1990.

  J. JaJa, "An Introduction to Parallel Algorithms," Chapters 1 and 2, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1990.

D. Easley and J. Kleinberg, "Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World," Chapter 14, Cambridge University Press, 2010.


Web crawler


HITS algorithm

Data deduplication


Cloud computing


Virtual currency